Evaluation of any process unforgettably includes the corrective and preventive action. Corrective action as the name suggest something you are correcting after you found existing nonconformity or defect, and preventing action is one that action taken to eliminate the cause of a possible nonconformity, defect or potential hole in the system.
Today majority companies follows a standardize procedure for software configuration management, e.g. ISO 9001:2000 for quality assurance. This procedure includes corrective and preventive actions and revises their process tracking system in order to improve the quality of their deliverable. Preventive action includes reviews, software validations and verification, quality management system review, and kind of more about statistical result driven actions. As process passed through particular obstacle, concern person review the cause of problem and provide their feed back in order to update your procedure and makes sure that the process will prevent reoccurrence in the future for the same kind of situation. For the corrective action, once you found the problem you will make some steps to correct your work done.
This same method is applicable to wide area of functional process, whether it’s manufacturing process, software development, or other routine procedures in different firms.
Reference: Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach, by Roger S Pressman